Selected Sources

Manuscripts: Crew Agreements held by the Maritime History Archive

Alipore, ON 12547, 1863.

Birdie, ON 48213, 1866.

Dennis Horton, ON 38187, 1866.

Greta ON 69335, 1866.

Hecla, ON 19723, 1870.

Nile, ON 48437, 1874.

Queen of Beauty, ON 38730, 1870.

Raphael, ON 91858, 1893.

Tankerton Tower, ON 89852, 1911.

Thalaba, ON 37174, 1867.

Veronica, ON 28192, 1872.

Ward Chipman, ON 23515, 1868.

Wickwire, ON 52098, 1870.

Wolfe's Cove, ON 19709, 1868.


Alexander, David. "Literacy Among Canadian and Foreign Seamen, 1863-1899." In Working Men Who Got Wet: Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the Atlantic Canada Shipping Project, July 24-July 26, 1980, edited by Rosemary Ommer and Gerald Panting, 1-33. St. John's: Maritime History Group, Memorial University, 1980.

Barnes, William Morris. When Ships Were Ships: The Seafaring Adventures of Captain William Morris Barnes. Edited by Hilda Wortman. New York: Albert & Charles Boni, 1930.

Board of Trade. Return "Showing the Number, Ages, Ratings, and Causes of Death of Seamen reported by the Board of Trade as Having Died in British Merchant Service During the Year 1866". London: 1867. House of Commons Parliamentary Papers, LXIII, pp. 395-399. Online,

Burton, Valerie. "Apprenticeship Regulation and Maritime Labour in the Nineteenth Century British Merchant Marine." International Journal of Maritime History 1, no. 1 (1989): 29-50.

———. "'Whoring, Drinking Sailors': Reflections on Masculinity from the Labour History of Nineteenth-Century British Shipping." In Working Out Gender: Perspectives from Labour History, edited by Margaret Walsh, 84-101. Aldershot: Ashgate, 1999.

Creighton, Margaret. Rites and Passages: The Experience of American Whaling, 1830-1870. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1995.

Crowell, Clement. Novascotiaman. Halifax: Nova Scotia Museum, 1979.

Crutchley, W. Caius. My Life at Sea: Being a "Yarn" Loosely Spun for the Purpose of Holding Together Certain Reminiscences of the Transition Period from Sail to Steam in the British Mercantile Marine (1863-1894). London: Chapman & Hall, 1912.

Fingard, Judith. Jack in Port: Sailortowns of Eastern Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1982.

Ginsburg, Benedict W. Hints on the Legal Duties of Shipmasters. 2nd ed. London: Charles Griffin and Co., 1903.

Hay, Mary. I Saw a Ship A'sailing. London: National Maritime Museum, 1981.

Lane, Tony. "Neither Officers nor Gentlemen." History Workshop, no. 19 (1985): 128-143.

Lees, James. The Merchant Shipping Acts of 1854, 1855, 1862, & 1867. Liverpool: George Phillip & Son, 1867.

Linklater, Elizabeth. A Child Under Sail. London: Rupert Hart-Davis, 1949.

Raffles, T. S. "Official Reports: On the Loss of the 'Euphrosyne'." The Mercantile Marine Magazine 9 (July 1862): 214-216.

Reed's Seamanship: Compiled for Candidates Preparing to Pass the Marine Board Examinations for Certificates of Competency as Mates and Masters. 21st ed. Sunderland: Thomas Reed & Co., 1914.

Sager, Eric. Seafaring Labour: The Merchant Marine of Atlantic Canada, 1820-1914. Kingston: McGill-Queen's University Press, 1989.

Samuels, Samuel. From the Forecastle to the Cabin. New York: Library Editions, 1970.