Selected Sources

Crew Agreements:

Ballaarat, ON 81838, 1890 & 1894, MHA.

Gilbert Thompson, ON 44688, 1873, MHA.

Oolobaria, ON 106036, 1897, MHA.

Palawan, ON 102400, 1897, 1900, 1901 & 1903, MHA.

Rewa, ON 85946, 1896, MHA.

Rome, ON 81820, 1882 & 1900, MHA.

Sir Bartle Frere, ON 30634, 1874, MHA.

St. Patrick, ON 64538, 1877, MHA.


“Accommodation for Lascars: Petition to Lord G. Hamilton,” Mercantile Shipping Gazette. April 10 1900, MHA.

Adams, Caroline (ed.). Across Seven Seas and Thirteen Rivers: Life Stories of Pioneer Sylheti Settlers in Britain. London: Eastside Books, 1987.

Ahuja, Ravi. "Mobility and Containment: The Voyages of South Asian Seamen, C.1900-1960," International Review of Social History, 51 (2006): 111-142.

Balachandran, Gopalan. “Cultures of Protest in Transnational Contexts: Indian Seamen Abroad, 1886-1945.” Transforming Cultures eJournal, 3, no. 2 (2008), 45-75.

Barnes, Leo. Evolution & Scope of Mercantile Marine Laws Relating to Seamen in India. New Delhi: Maritime Law Association of India, 1983.          

Ballantyne, Tony. “Mr. Peal’s Archive: Mobility and Exchange in Histories of Empire,” in Antoinette Burton (ed.). Archive Stories: Facts, Fictions, and the Writing of History, 87-110. Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2005.

“A Bill to Amend and Consolidate Acts related to Merchant Shipping,” 19th Century House of Commons Sessional Papers. Vol IV.1, 35, 1854. Accessed from:

“A Bill to consolidate and amend the acts relating to merchant shipping and navigation,” 19th Century House of Commons Sessional Papers. Vol III.445, 267, 1868-69. Accessed from:

Bolster, W. Jeffrey. Black Jacks: African American Seamen in the Age of Sail. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1997.

Burton, Valerie. "Counting Seafarers: The Published Records of the Registry of Merchant Seamen, 1849-1913" in The Mariner's Mirror. Vol. 71, No. 3. 1985, 305-320.

Ewald, Janet. "Bondsmen, Freedmen, and Maritime Industrial Transportation, C.1840-1900." Slavery & Abolition, 31, no. 3 (2010): 451.

--. "Crossers of the Sea: Slaves, Freedmen, and Other Migrants in the Northwestern Indian Ocean, C. 1750-1914." American Historical Review,105 (2005): 69--91.

Frost, Diane. Ethnic Labour and British Imperial Trade: A History of Ethnic Seafarers in the UK. London: F. Cass, 1995.

Government of Canada. “Wesley Family,” 1871 Census of Canada. Sandy Cove, Digby NS, No. 191, Polling district 4, Family No. 165, 41.

Gutman, Herbert George. "Notes and documents: Documents on Negro seamen during the Reconstruction Period," in Labour History, 7 (1966): no. 3, 307-311.

Hansard. House of Lords’ Debates. 27 February 1902, vol. 103, cc 1258-66. Accessed from:

Hood, W. H. The Blight of Insubordination: The Lascar Question, and Rights and Wrongs of the British Shipmaster, Including the Mercantile Marine Committee Report. London: Spottiswoode & Co, 1903.

House of Commons, Mercantile Marine Committee. Report of the Committee appointed by the Board of Trade to inquire into certain questions affecting the Mercantile Marine with minutes of evidence appendices, and index. Report [CD 1607] Minutes of Evidence [CD 1608] Appendices [CD 1609] 1903, Vol. LXII.

Hyslop, J. "Steamship Empire: Asian, African and British Sailors in the Merchant Marine C.1880-1945." Journal of Asian and African Studies, 44.1 (2009): 49-67.

Lane, Tony. Liverpool: City of the Sea. Liverpool: University of Liverpool Press, 1997.

“Lascar Meeting, Bombay,” Shipping and Mercantile Gazette & Lloyd’s List, 1884-1914. June 30 1902, MHA.

Lees, James. The Merchant Shipping Acts of 1854, 1855, 1862, and 1867. London: Mercantile Marine Committee, 1868.

Pulling, Alexander. The Shipping Code: Being the Merchant Shipping Act, 1894. London: Sweet & Maxwell Ltd, 1894.

Ricardo, John Lewis. The Anatomy of the Navigation Laws. London: Charles Gilpin, 1849.

Sims, George Robert. Living London: Its Work and Its Play, Its Humour and Its Pathos, Its Sights and Its Scenes. London: Cassell and Co, 1902.

Tabili, Laura. We Ask for British Justice: Workers and Racial Difference in Late Imperial Britain. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

Visram, Rozina. Asians in Britain: 400 Years of History. London: Pluto Press, 2002.

Whitfield, Harvey Amani. Blacks on the Border: The Black Refugees in British North America, 1815-1860. Burlington, Vt: University of Vermont Press, 2006.

Willson, C. T. The Mālim Sāhib's Hindustāni, Etc. [Lascāri for Ships' Officers.] Glasgow: Brown, Son, & Ferguson Publishers, 1958.

Wilson, Joseph Havelock. My Stormy Voyage Through Life. London [etc.]: Co-operative printing Society, 1925.

Wong, Maria Lin. Chinese-Liverpudlians. Birkenhead: Liver Press, 1989.